Research Mentor(s): Jacob Berv, Life Sciences Postdoctoral Fellow
Research Mentor School/College/Department: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology / Museum of Paleontology, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts
Presentation Date: Thursday, April 22, 2021
Session: Session 6 (4pm-4:50pm)
Breakout Room: Room 18
The Neotropics is one of the most species-rich regions in the world (Condon et al., 2008). Its diverse landscape and complex history has allowed for population isolation and subsequent diversification (e.g. Berv et al., 2021). While our knowledge of phylogenetic diversity in the Neotropics has dramatically increased in recent years (e.g. Berv et al., 2021; Tello et al., 2009), our understanding of how species’ have adapted across a myriad of climate regimes in the Neotropics is less well understood (Weir, 2006). The White-crowned Manakin (Pseudopipra pipra) is a small passerine bird that has until recently been recognized as a single phylogenetic species (Berv et al., 2021). This cryptic species complex is found in a variety of Neotropical habitats across it’s continental distribution, including montane and sub-montane areas of the Andes and Central America, as well as lowland regions of the Amazon basin, and Brazilian Atlantic Forest (e.g. Berv et al., 2021; Kirwan et al., 2012). Berv et al. (2021) examined a wide sample of genomic, vocalization and phenotypic data, and identified at least 17 phylogenetically distinct lineages that can be conservatively grouped into 8-10 species. Species distribution modeling (SDM) is one way to quantify the spatial and climatic niches occupied by species with environmental data (including measurements of temperature, humidity, and seasonality). SDMs may also be used to assess how organisms have adapted to their environments (Broennimann et al., 2011). Pseudopipra can be found across ~11,300,000 km2 in the Neotropics (BirdLife International, 2021), and ranges from sea level to 500m in Brazil, and up to 2,000 m in the Andes mountains (World Wildlife fund, 2021). Because Pseudopipra may have a particularly wide habitat tolerance, we sought to quantify the degree of niche differentiation among lowland and montane lineages. By using principal components analysis to determine the environmental variables most associated with Pseudopipra occurrences and calculating the D metric to quantify niche overlap (Broennimann et al., 2011), we intend to develop a better understanding of the evolutionary history of Pseudopipra. We also plan to assess whether or not the environmental tolerances of Pseudopipra have changed as Pseudopipra evolved to occupy different geographical regions. Lastly, we seek to use niche modeling to better understanding the potential impact of climate change on Neotropical organisms, as it can provide insight into how well species are able adapt to changing environments (Papes, 2007). Berv, J. S., Campagna, L., Feo, T. J., Castro-Astor, I., Ribas, C. C., Prum, R. O., & Lovette, I. J. (2021). Genomic phylogeography of THE WHITE-CROWNED Manakin PSEUDOPIPRA Pipra (Aves: Pipridae) illuminates a continental-scale radiation out of the Andes. doi:10.1101/713081 BirdLife International (2021). Species factsheet: Pseudopipra pipra. http://www.birdlife.org Broennimann, O., Fitzpatrick, M. C., Pearman, P. B., Petitpierre, B., Pellissier, L., Yoccoz, N. G., . . . Guisan, A. (2011). Measuring ecological niche overlap from occurrence and spatial environmental data. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21(4), 481-497. doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2011.00698.x Condon, M. A., Scheffer, S. J., Lewis, M. L., & Swensen, S. M. (2008). Hidden neotropical diversity: Greater than the sum of its parts. Science, 320(5878), 928-931. doi:10.1126/science.1155832 Kirwan,G. M. & Green,G. (2012). Cotingas and MANAKINS. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 87(4), 399-400. doi:10.1086/668190 Papes, M. (2007). Ecological niche modeling approaches to conservation of endangered and threatened birds in central and Eastern Europe. Biodiversity Informatics, 4(0). doi:10.17161/bi.v4i0.37 Tello, J. G., Moyle, R. G., Marchese, D. J., & Cracraft, J. (2009). Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the tyrant flycatchers, cotingas, manakins, and their allies (aves: Tyrannides). Cladistics, 25(5), 429-467. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00254.x World Wildlife Fund.(2021) Tepui. Retrieved March 16, 2021, from https://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/nt0169 World Wildlife Fund. (2021) Central South America: CENTRAL BRAZIL, Into Bolivia and Paraguay. Retrieved March 16, 2021, from https://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/nt0704 Weir J. T. (2006). Divergent timing and patterns of species accumulation in lowland and highland neotropical birds. Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 60(4), 842-855.